Identification of Genetic Diversity by Using Mitochondrial COI Gene of Myrmeleotettix maculatus (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Gomphocerinae) Species Group
AuthorTaylan, Mehmet Sait
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Introduction: The Myrmeleotettix Bolivar, 1914 (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Gomphocerinae) is a genus representing by eleven species in whole Palaearctic. It is known in Anatolia with some records of M. maculatus in Black Sea and Marmara regions and M. ethicus Sirin & Ciplak, 2011 from type locality in Antalya. As for the other glacial refugee, cold preferring members of this genus discontinuously distributed on high altitudes in Anatolia. This research aims to determine of the evolutionary relationships between the Turkish M. maculatus species group, and to define and clarify the systematic of the group located in Anatolia. Material and Methods: Six populations (Balck Sea: Ordu, Trabzon, Giresun, Marmara: Bursa, Balıkesir, Germany: Hellerberg) of M. maculatus and one population (Mediterrenean: Antalya) of M. ethicus were studied. Total DNA was isolated from hind femora muscle using salt-DNA extraction protocol. Almost 650 base pair (bp) fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene was amplified through the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from each individual sample. The PCR products were purified using the PEG precipitation. Sequences were aligned in Geneious 9.1.5. Nucleotide composition was analyzed and frequency of each haplotype was estimated using DnaSP version 5. Phylogetic analyses were achived using MEGA6 and PAUP 4.0beta. Results: Phylogenetic analyzes have placed the European populations of M. maculatus in the basal arm, the Black Sea populations and the Marmara populations in the different arms of the phylogenetic tree. It was also found that the Black Sea populations had higher genetic diversity and contained ancestral haplotypes. M. ethicus species were nearest to the Marmara populations of M. maculatus species according to the localization in the phylogenetic tree. Discussion: As a result, 3 regional groups of M. maculatus (Marmara, Black Sea and Germany) were as three separate clades in the phylogenetic trees. It was also determined that the M. ethicus has a single haplotype and genetically more similar to the Marmara populations of M. maculatus. According to this data, it can be speculated that, M. ethicus with its low genetic diversity and close relation to the Marmara population of M. maculatus, one lineage of M. maculatus from Marmara population moved to southern part of Anatolia in the last glacial period and differentiated to M. ethicus in Antalya.